Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level. The Hidden History of a Fundamental Revolution in Biology
Gilbert N. Ling, Ph.D.
Pacific Press
ISBN 0-9707322-0-1

"Dr. Ling is one of the most inventive biochemist I have ever met."
Prof. Albert Szent-Györgyi, Nobel Laureate

A Super-Glossary 
for Words, Terms and Basic Concepts Used in the Book


A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z


g: unit of force equal to that exerted by gravity at the earth's surface.

gamma K: the activity coefficient of K+.

-γ/2: the nearest neighbor interaction energy in a cooperative adsorption, equal to the additional energy gain with each new neighboring ij pair formed {See [14.3(2)] and/or section 4 in Appendix 1.}

γ-scintillation counter: a devise for detecting y-radiation where the y-emitting radioactive sample is placed within a cavity or "well" inside a solid scintillator which emits light each time it encounters a γ-radiation and the light pulses are then amplified by a photomultiplier and then registered on a counter.

galactose: See D-galactose.

"gang": a chain of similar H-bonding, ionic or other types of sites, which function autocooperatively and coherently as a unit.

Gay-Lussac's Law: At constant pressure, the volume of any gas expands by the same fraction of its volume at 0° C. for every 1° rise of the temperature. Due to French physicist-chemist, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850). Also known as Charles's Law due to J.A.C. Charles (1787).

Geiger counter: an instrument introduced by Hans Geiger for detecting and measuring the intensity of radiation.

gel state: a more rigid state of a colloid than a sol.

gelatin: denatured collagen usually obtained from animal skin, hoofs, etc., by boiling.

gene: Historically a gene is an element of the germ plasm, which controls the transmission of a hereditary character. A gene is now known to be a stretch along a chromosome that codes for a functional product, i.e., either RNA or its translation product, a polypeptide or protein.

Gerard-Graham-Ling microelectrode: for some time also known as Ling-Gerard microelectrode, glass capillary microelectrode In 1942 Judith Graham, A. J. Carlson and R. W. Gerard first reported the use of fine-tipped glass capillary electrode for the measurement of the resting potential of frog muscle cells. War slowed down the progress, so that the electric potential as reported in 1946 in Graham's Ph.D. thesis (and elsewhere) varied over the range of 41 to 80 mV, too scattered for quantitative determinations. The task of improving the technique of making the microelectrode and of filling the electrode with salt solutions fell on G. N. Ling, who as a graduate student under Prof. R.W. Gerard, inherited the project. The efforts paid off so that by 1947, the difficulties in obtaining reproducible quantitative data were overcome. Thus, the resting potentials reported by Ling and Gerard in 1949 obtained with the improved technique was 78.4 ± 5.3 mV from 1350 measurements with Ringer's solution filled electrodes, and 97.6+5.7 mV. from 207 measurements with a 3 M KCl-filled electrodes. A tool was thus ready to enable the exact measurements of the electrical potentials activities of a vast variety of living cells as well as subcellular organelles. (For more details, see Refs. 88, 441-443.)

germ plasm: The living organism can be seen to consist of two parts: soma and germ plasm. Soma represents all except the germ plasm, which is devoted to inherence. A chief advocate of this concept was August Weismann (1834-1915).

giant barnacle muscle cells: muscle fibers (diameters varying from 0.4 mm to over 1.0 mm) isolated from the depressor muscle of the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilis.

giant squid axon: See squid axon.

Gibbs free energy: See free energy.

gland cells: cells belonging to a variety of glands (e.g., salivary gland, adrenal gland).

glass electrode potential: the electric potential difference measured between the inside surface of a glass electrode and an outside solution bathing the electrode To be noted is the fact that the inside electric lead requires no mediation of a solution (direct metal plating would do) but an external solution is essential.

globular protein: In contrast to fibrous proteins, which are much longer than wide, globular proteins are roughly speaking globular in shape. Most so called native proteins exist as globular proteins. Under proper conditions, globular proteins can form crystals.

glucose: See D-glucose, L-glucose.

glucuronidase: an enzyme that hydrolyzes a glucuronide. Example is β-glucuronidase, which hydrolyzes the β-glucoside of D-glucuronic acid. (D-glucuronic acid is one of the carbohydrate derivatives possessing both aldehyde and carboxyl groups, which are known as uronic acids.)

glutamate: See L-glutamate.

glutamic acid: See L-glutamic acid.

glycine: CH2NH2COOH, a common α-amino acid found in almost all protein hydrolysates.

glycine-NaOH buffer: a solution containing a mixture of glycine and NaOH at a specific ratio so that the pH of the solution is maintained at a stable specific value Useful range of pH maintained: 8.2-10.1

glycolysis: Animal tissues like the skeletal muscle utilize glucose anaerobically by way of what is called glycolysis. The overall reaction of glycolysis is that one glucose molecule is converted to two molecules of lactate, two molecules of ADP and inorganic phosphates are converted to two ATP molecules and four electrons are transferred to pyruvate.

glycolytic activity: metabolic activity involved in glycolysis.

gram ion: the quantity of an ion that has a weight in grams numerically equal to its molecular or atomic weight.

gram molecule: the quantity of a compound or element that has a weight in grams numerically equal to its molecular weight.

gravity: the gravitational attraction of the mass of the earth, the moon or a planet for bodies at its surface.

Great Wall: the Great Wall of China built on the northern boundary of China mainly to protect herself against northern invaders, who called themselves Huns, Tartars, Mongols and still others names.

guanidine HCl: HN=C(NH2)2, HC1, well-known protein denaturant freely soluble in water.

guanidyl group: NH2C=NH(NH)-, at neutral pH the guanidyl group picks up a H+ becoming a cationic group.

gum arabic: a highly water soluble gum from the acacia tree.

Разделы книги
"Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level.
The Hidden History of a Fundamental Revolution in Biology":

Contents (PDF 218 Kb)
Preface (
PDF 155 Kb)
Answers to Reader's Queries (Read First!) (
PDF 120 Kb)

1. How It Began on the Wrong Foot---Perhaps Inescapably
2. The Same Mistake Repeated in Cell Physiology
3. How the Membrane Theory Began
4. Evidence for a Cell Membrane Covering All Living Cells
5. Evidence for the Cell Content as a Dilute Solution
6. Colloid, the Brain Child of a Chemist
7. Legacy of the Nearly Forgotten Pioneers
8. Aftermath of the Rout
9. Troshin's Sorption Theory for Solute Distribution
10. Ling's Fixed Charge Hypothesis (LFCH)
11. The Polarized Multilayer Theory of Cell Water
12. The Membrane-Pump Theory and Grave Contradictions
13. The Physico-chemical Makeup of the Cell Membrane
14. The Living State: Electronic Mechanisms for its Maintenance and Control
15. Physiological Activities: Electronic Mechanisms and Their Control by ATP, Drugs, Hormones and Other Cardinal Adsorbents
16. Summary Plus
17. Epilogue 

A Super-Glossary

List of Abbreviations
List of Figures, Tables and Equations
References (
PDF 193 Kb)
Subject Index
About the Author

A Super-Glossary
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